It is true that there have been members who have openly criticized their leaders or the policies of their party and who have still survived politically. Some have even managed to replace the leaders they criticize: Prime Ministers Robert Menzies, Malcolm Fraser and Paul Keating are examples. However, they should know that if they fail and remain in the House of Representatives or the Senate, they will most likely be banned from the back benches for the foreseeable future. Worse still, they could end their parliamentary careers, as the primary sanction that Australian parties have to ensure the discipline of their members during the parliamentary vote is their influence on the process of selecting candidates for election and re-election to Parliament. Twenty of these elections gave rise to governments that did not have a majority of seats in the Senate. Since the 1961 elections, governments have had majorities in the Senate only after the 1975 and 1977 elections. The introduction of public relations for the Senatorial elections undoubtedly led to significant and lasting changes in the distribution of seats in the House of Representatives and the Senate between political parties and, consequently, significant and lasting changes in the dynamics of Australian national politics. The procedures for electing Australian MPs and Senators are much more complex than the procedures for electing their American counterparts. U.S. deputies and senators are all elected in the same way – in what is often called the « first past the post » system, but which I prefer to call the district plurality system.
Each voter votes for the candidate he or she prefers to represent the voter`s constituency, whether it is a federal state or a congressional district, and the candidate who gets the most votes is the winner. In Australia, on the other hand, Commonwealth members are elected by a combination of the majority of electoral districts and proportional representation (PR) schemes, with preferential votes (also known as alternative votes) in elections to both houses. Voting has also been compulsory since the 1925 parliamentary elections.  The main purpose of party assemblies is to decide how the party will work as a team in Parliament. There have been two transformative events in the history of the Commonwealth Parliament….